Giorgio Armani tried to kill Fabrice Penot. At least, it seems his business almost did. A perfume designer, Fabrice worked for years on the House of Armani brand. But even though he was brought in to run the fragrance division, he was constantly called to answer to the financial and marketing departments, who demanded a justification—a real world example of how and where a particular concept has worked for someone else—for every idea he tried to pursue. Demonstrating tested marketplace success before acting is the opposite of innovation, and nearly drove Fabrice Penot mad.